Use stdeb to make Debian packages for a Python package (Shallow Thoughts)

Akkana's Musings on Open Source Computing, Science, and Nature.

Sat, 26 May 2012

Use stdeb to make Debian packages for a Python package

I write a lot of little Python scripts. And I use Ubuntu and Debian. So why aren't any of my scripts packaged for those distros?

Because Debian packaging is absurdly hard, and there's very little documentation on how to do it. In particular, there's no help on how to take something small, like a Python script, and turn it into a package someone else could install on a Debian system. It's pretty crazy, since RPM packaging of Python scripts is so easy.

Recently at the Ubuntu Developers' Summit, Asheesh of OpenHatch pointed me toward a Python package called stdeb that simplifies a lot of the steps and makes Python packaging fairly straightforward.

You'll need a setup.py file to describe your Python script, and you'll probably want a .desktop file and an icon. If you haven't done that before, see my article on Packaging Python for MeeGo for some hints.

Then install python-stdeb. The package has some requirements that aren't listed as dependencies, so you'll need to install:

apt-get install python-stdeb fakeroot python-all
(I have no idea why it needs python-all, which installs only a directory /usr/share/doc/python-all with some policy documentation files, but if you don't install it, stdeb will fail later.)

Now create a config file for stdeb to tell it what Debian/Ubuntu version you're going to be targeting, if it's anything other than Debian unstable (stdeb's default). Unfortunately, there seems to be no way to pass this on the command line rather than in a config file. So if you want to make packages for several distros, you'll have to edit the config file for every distro you want to support. Here's what I'm using for Ubuntu 12.04 Precise Pangolin:

[DEFAULT]
Suite: precise

Now you're ready to run stdeb. I know of two ways to run it. You can generate both source and binary packages, like this:

python setup.py --command-packages=stdeb.command bdist_deb
Or you can generate source packages only, like this:
python setup.py --command-packages=stdeb.command sdist_dsc

Either syntax creates a directory called deb_dist. It contains a lot of files including a source .dsc, several tarballs, a copy of your source directory, and (if you used bdist_deb) a binary .deb package.

If you used the bdist_deb form, don't be put off that it concludes with a message:

dpkg-buildpackage: binary only upload (no source included)
It's fibbing: the source .dsc is there as well as the binary .deb. I presume it prints the warning because it creates them as separate steps, and the binary is the last step.

Now you can use dpkg -i to install your binary deb, or you can use the source dsc for various purposes, like creating a repository or a Launchpad PPA. But those involve a lot more steps -- so I'll cover that in a separate article about creating PPAs.

Update: you can find that article here: Creating packages for a Launchpad PPA.

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[ 10:44 May 26, 2012    More programming | permalink to this entry | comments ]
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